Chapter 1.

Becoming the Eastern Roman Empire, 330–491

Events (p. 26-27) ¶ On Julian see G.W. Bowersock, ‘The emperor Julian on his predecessors,’ Yale Classical Studies 27 (1982) 159-72 and Polymnia Athanassiadi, Julian. An Intellectual Biography (London: Routledge, 1992). On his Beard-hater see the second volume of his writings in the Loeb Classical Library, edited by W.C. Wright (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1913); the text is available online. I can also highly recommend Gore Vidal’s, novel Julian (New York: Little and Brown, 1964) in which the complex character of the emperor and his times is masterfully explored.

(p. 28-30) The key study on Theodosius I is Stephen Williams and Gerard Friell, Theodosius. The Empire at Bay (London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994). Peter Heather’s, Empires and Barbarians: Migration, Development and the Birth of Europe (London: Macmillan, 2009) excellently surveys the relationship between the Empire and its barbarian enemies, allies and conquerors.

(p. 30) ¶ On Pulcheria see Kenneth G. Holum, Theodosian Empresses. Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989) and Liz James, Empresses and Power in Early Byzantium (London and New York: Continuum, 2001).

(pp. 32-34) Chalcedon in Context: Church Councils 400–700, edited by R. Price and M. Whitby (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2009) discusses the various councils and their impact. ¶  The acts of the council itself are translated in The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, translated with an introduction and notes by R. Price and M. Gaddis, 3 vols (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005).

(p. 32) ¶ On Ulfila see The Goths in the Fourth Century, edited and translated by P. Heather and J. Matthews (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1991).

(pp. 32-33) ¶ On Gregory see Rochelle Snee, ‘Gregory Nazianzen’s Anastasia Church: Arianism, the Goths, and Hagiography,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 52 (1998) 157-86.

(p. 33) ¶ On the thorny issue of precedence between the patriarchates see Henry Chadwick, East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church. From Apostolic Times until the Council of Florence (Oxford: OUP, 2005). On the cult of Mary see The Cult of the Mother of God in Byzantium: Texts and Images, edited by Leslie Brubaker and Mary B. Cunningham (Farnham and Burlington, VT:  Ashgate, 2011).

(pp. 35-36) ¶ On Tarasis/Zeno and the end of the Alans see Brian Croke, ‘Dynasty and ethnicity: Emperor Leo I and the eclipse of Aspar,’ Chiron 35 (2005) 147–203.

(p. 36) Gilbert Dagron’s, Emperor and Priest: The Imperial Office in Byzantium (Cambridge: CUP, 2003) is an authoritative study of the Byzantine perception of the imperial office; it should be consulted for the entire Byzantine period.

Infrastructures (p. 36-37) ¶ On the Constantinopolitan Senate see Hans-Georg Beck, Senat und Volk von Konstantinopel. Probleme der byzantinischen Verfassungsgeschichte, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte  6 (1966) and Gilbert Dagron, Naissance d’une capitale: Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 451 (Paris: PUF, 1974). See also Lounghis, Επισκόπηση Βυζαντινής Ιστορίας, vol I (as above) and Alexander Skinner, ‘Political mobility in the Later Roman Empire,’ Past and Present 218 (2013) 17-53. On bishops see Claudia Rapp, Holy Bishops in Late Antiquity. The Nature of Christian Leadership in an Age of Transition (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2005)

(pp. 37-38) ¶ On the mass of urban and rural populations see Michel Kaplan, ‘The producing population,’ in The social history of Byzantium (as in Introduction) 143-67 and Alan Cameron, Circus Factions: Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976).

(p. 38-39) On the economy of the period the key work is undoubtedly Chris Wickham’s Framing the early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800 (Oxford: OUP, 2005). On the importance of the gold coinage see Jairus Banaji, Agrarian change in Late Antiquity: Gold, labour and aristocratic dominance (Oxford: OUP, 2001) and for a more recent, somewhat controversial, approach to the question of estates and their role see Peter Sarris, ‘The Early Byzantine Economy in Context: Aristocratic Property and Economic Growth Reconsidered’, Early Medieval Europe 19.3 (2011), 255–84.  ¶ For a different reading of the evidence see, for example Todd M. Hickey, ‘Aristocratic landowning and the economy of Byzantine Egypt’, in Egypt in the Byzantine World, 450-700,  edited by R.E. Bagnall (Cambridge: CUP, 2007) 288-308.

Environment (p. 40) ¶ On the Christianization of the Empire see Fergus Millar, A Greek Roman Empire. Power and Belief under Theodosius II (408–450) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007) as well as Peter Brown, Authority and the Sacred: Aspects of the Christianization of the Roman World (Cambridge: CUP, 1995) together with his classic study ‘The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity’, Journal of Roman Studies 61 (1971) 80-101. On violence against pagans see M. Gaddis, There Is No Crime for Those Who Have Christ (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005) and Violence in Late Antiquity. Perceptions and Practices, edited by H. A. Drake (Burlington, VT and Aldershot:  Ahsgate, 2006).

(p. 41) On the fate of paganism within the Christian Empire see Alan Cameron, The Last Pagans of Rome (Oxford and New York: OUP, 2011). ¶ On pagan institutions in the period see Charlotte Roueché, ‘Spectacles in Late Antiquity,’ Antiquité Tardive 15 (207) 59-64. On the emergence of charitable institutions see Peregrine Horden, ‘The Christian Hospital in Late Antiquity. Break or Bridge? in Gesundheit–Krankheit. Kulturtransfer medizinischen Wissens von der Spätantike bis in die frühe Neuzeit, edited by F. Steger and K.P. Jankrift (Cologne and Weimar, Böhlau, 2004) 2-24 and his ‘The Earliest Hospitals in Byzantium, Western Europe, and Islam,’ in Journal of Interdisciplinary History 35 (2005) 361-89 as well as the article by Peter Brown in the same volume ‘Remembering the Poor and the Aesthetic of Society’, pp. 513-22. The main study on Christian hospitals is the book by T. S. Miller, The birth of the hospital in the Byzantine Empire (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2nd ed. 1997), which, however, has received serious criticisms for some of the conclusions it draws.

(pp. 41-42) ¶ On the emergence of monks and monasteries see Samuel Rubenson, ‘Asceticism and monasticism, I: Eastern,’ in Cambridge History of Christianity, vol 2 (as in Introduction), 637-68 and Derwas Chitty, The desert a city. An Introduction to the Study of Egyptian and Palestinian Monasticism under the Christian Empire (Oxford: Blackwell, 1966); Philip Rousseau, Pachomius. The making of a community in fourth-century Egypt (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2nd ed. 1999).

(p. 42) On Christianization and its effects on all aspects of life see Peter Brown, The body and society: Men, women, and sexual renunciation in early Christianity (New York: Columbia University press, 1988) and his most recent study on charity Through the eye of a needle: Wealth, the fall of Rome, and the making of Christianity in the West, 350–550 AD (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2012).

(pp. 43-44) On early Constantinople see Sarah Basset, The Urban Image of Late Antique Constantinople (Cambridge: CUP, 2004) and Dagron, Naissance (as above) ¶ as well as Cyril Mango, Le développement urbain de Constantinople (IVe–VIIe siècles) (Paris: De Boccard, 3rd ed. 2004) and Thomas F. Matthews, ‘The piety of Constantine the Great in his votive offerings,’ Cahiers archéologiques 53 (2009) 5-16. On The Hippodrome and its monuments see Hippodrome / Atmeydanı. A stage for Istanbul’s history, 2 vols, edited by V. Pitarakis (Istanbul: Pera Museum, 2010) and Gilbert Dagron, L’hippodrome de Constantinople. Jeux, peuple et politique (Paris: Gallimard, 2011).

(pp. 44-45) On Constantine’s Holy Apostles see Cyril Mango, ‘Constantine’s Mausoleum and the Translation of Relics,’ Byzantinische Zeitschrift 83 (1990), 51–62.

(p. 46) ¶ On the collection of laws see John F. Matthews, Laying Down the Law. A Study of the Theodosian Code (New Haven:  Yale University Press, 2000).