Chapter 2.

Masters of the Mediterranean, 491-602

Events (p. 47) To study the Age of Justinian one should start with Fiona K. Haarer’s Anastasius I: Politics and Empire in the Late Roman World (Cambridge: Francis Cairns, 2006) and also look at the collection of essays in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, edited by M. Maas (Cambridge: CUP, 2005).

(pp. 47-48) ¶ On Theodoric and Italy see Peter Heather, ‘Theoderic, king of the Goths,’ Early Medieval Europe 4 (1995) 145-73 and V. Vlysidou, St. Lampakis, M. Leontsini and T. Lounghis, Βυζαντινά στρατεύματα στη Δύση (5ος-11ος αι.) (Athens: National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2008).

(p. 48) ¶ On relations with Persia see  Beate Dignas and Engelbert Winter, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity (Cambridge: CUP, 2007) and Geoffrey Greatrex and Samuel N.C. Lieu, The Roman eastern frontier and the Persian Wars, part II, AD 363-630 (London and New York: Routledge, 2002); on the Arab tribes between Byzantium and Persia see Gregg Fischer, Between Empires. Arabs, Romans, and Sasanians in Late Antiquity (Oxford: OUP, 2011).

(p. 49) ¶ On Justinian I see apart from volume 14 of the Cambridge Ancient History (as in the Introduction) and the Cambridge Companion (as above) Telemachos Lounghis, Ιουστινιανός Πέτρος Σαββάτιος. Κοινωνία, Πολιτική και Ιδεολογία τον 6ο μ.Χ. αιώνα (Thessalonica: Banias, 2005).

(p. 50) ¶ On the empress Theodora see James, Empresses and Power (as in Chapter 1), Lynda Garland, Byzantine Emporesses: Women and Power in Byzantium AD 527-1204 (London and New York: Routledge, 1999) and Leslie Brubaker, ‘Sex, lies and textuality:  the Secret History of Prokopios and the rhetoric of gender in sixth-century Byzantium,’ in Gender in the early medieval world, east and west, 300-900, edited by L. Brubaker and J. Smith  (Cambridge: CUP, 2004), 83-101.

(p. 50-51) ¶ On Prokopios see the two very different approaches by Averil Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (London: Duckworth, 1985) and Anthony Kaldellis, Procopius of Caesarea: Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity (Philadelphia:  University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004); see also the short review of Kaldellis’ work by Averil Cameron in The American Historical Review 109 (2004) 1621.

(p. 51) ¶ On the ambitious Justinianic codification of legislation as well as his overall approach to law see the chapter ‘Law and Legal Practice in the the Age of Justinian’ by Caroline Humfress in the Cambridge Companion (as above) 161-84.

(pp. 51-52) ¶ On the Nika riot see: Geoffrey Greatrex, ‘The Nika Riot: A Reappraisal,’ The Journal of Hellenic Studies 117 (1997) 60-86 and for a Marxist reading T. C. Loungis, ‘Σχετικά με το ταξικό περιεχόμενο της Στάσης του Νίκα,’ Επιστημονική Σκέψη 22 (1985) 17-24.

(pp. 52-54) ¶ On Justinianic wars see the two recent collections Warfare in Late Antiquity, edited by L. Lavan, et al. (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013) and War and Warfare in Late Antiquity, edited by A. Sarantis and M. Christie (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013).

Infrastructures (pp. 57-58) On the plague and its impact see Dionysios Ch. Stathakopoulos, Famine and Pestilence in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Empire (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004) and Plague and the End of Antiquity: the Pandemic of 541–750, edited by L. K. Little (Cambridge: CUP, 2007). On the economy see C. Morrisson and J.-P. Sodini, ‘The Sixth-Century Economy‘ in the Economic History of Byzantium (as in the Introduction). Michael Decker’s Tilling the Hateful Earth: Agricultural Production and the Late Antique East (Oxford: OUP, 2009) provides the background to the late antique economic boom. On the importance of archaeology for the understanding of the changing landscapes of Late Antiquity see J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford: OUP, 2001) and the series Late Antique Archaeology, edited by Luke Lavan with several volumes already published. ¶ On the economy see also Peter Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge: CUP, 2006).

(pp. 59-59) ¶  On Justinianic administrative reforms see Michael Maas, ‘Roman History and Christian Ideology in Justinianic Reform Legislation,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 40 (1986) 17-31.

(pp. 59-60) On the relations between the Senate and Justinian see Telemachos C. Lounghis, ‘Die kriegerisch gesinnte Partei der senatorischen Opposition in den Jahren 526-529,’ in Zwischen Polis, Provinz und Peripherie. Beiträge zur byzantinischen Geschichte und Kultur, edited by L. Hoffmann (Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 2005) 25-36 as well as the relevant sections in his Επισκόπηση Βυζαντινής Ιστορίας (as in the Introduction) as well as his Ιουστινιανός Πέτρος Σαββάτιος (as above).

Environment (pp. 60-61) On the important, but often overlooked, aspect of eschatology see Paul Magdalino, ‘The history of the future and its uses: prophecy, policy and propaganda’, in The Making of Byzantine History. Studies Dedicated to Donald M. Nicol on his Seventieth Birthday, edited by R. Beaton and C. Roueché (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1993), 3–34 ¶ as well as Wolfram Brandes, ‘Anastasios ho dikoros. Endzeiterwartung und Kaiserkritik in Byzanz um 500 n. Chr,’ Byzantinische Zeitschrift 90 (1997) 24–63.

(p. 61) The work of Anthony Kaldellis has focused on highlighting the tensions behind the Justinianic façade, especially his ‘Identifying Dissident Circles in Sixth-Century Byzantium: The Friendship of Prokopios and Ioannes Lydos’, Florilegium 21 (2004), 1-17 and his ‘Classicism, Barbarism, and Warfare: Prokopios and the Conservative Reaction to Later Roman Military Policy,’ American Journal of Ancient History, new series 3-4 (2004–2005 [2007]) 189–218.

(p. 62) ¶ On the religious policy of Anastasios see Jitse Dijkstra and Geoffrey Greatrex, ‘Patriarchs and Politics in Constantinople in the Reign of Anastasius (with a Reedition of O.Mon.Epiph. 59),’ Millenium 6 (2009) 223-64.

(p. 63) ¶ On relations with the Miaphysites see Philip Wood, ‘We have no king but Christ’. Christian Political Thought in Greater Syria on the Eve of the Arab Conquest (c.400-585) (Oxford: OUP, 2010); on the failed council of Constantinople see The Acts of the Council of Constantinople of 553 with related texts on the Three Chapters Controversy, translated with an introduction and notes by R. Price, 2 vols (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2009).

(p. 63-64) ¶ On imperial building activity see James Crow, James Crow, ‘Fortification and the late Roman East: from urban walls to long walls,’ in Warfare in Late Antiquity (as above) 395-432.

(pp. 64-65) ¶ On the Hagia Sophia see Hans Buchwald, ‘St. Sophia: Turning point in the development of Byzantine Architecture?’ in Die Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, edited by V. Hoffman (Bern: Peter Lang, 1997) 29-48 and R. J. Mainstone, Hagia Sophia: architecture, structure and liturgy of Justinian’s Great Church (London: Thames and Hudson, 1988).

(p. 65) On Justinian’s buildings in Jerusalem see Yoram Tsafrir, ‘Procopius and the Nea Church in Jerusalem,’ Antiquité Tardive 8 (2000) 149-64. On the monastery of St Catherine’s on Mt Sinai see Cyril Mango, ‘Justinian’s fortified monastery,’ in The Monastery of Saint Catherine., edited by O. B. Baddeley and E. Brunner (London: St Catherine’s Foundation, 1996) 71-83. On relics in Constantinople see John Wortley, ‘The Marian Relics at Constantinople,’ Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 45 (2005) 171-87 and his ‘Relics and the Great Church,’ Byzantinische Zeitschrift  99 (2002) 631-47; on miraculous images not made by human hands see Averil Cameron, ‘Images of Authority: Elites and Icons in Late Sixth-Century Byzantium,’ Past and Present 84 (1979) 3-35 and Hans Belting, Likeness and presence: a history of the image before the era of art  (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1994).

(p. 66) On compilation literature in this period see Philip van der Eijk, ‘Principles and practices of compilation and abbreviation in the medical “encyclopaedias” of late antiquity,’ in Condensing Texts – Condensed Texts, edited by M. Horster and C. Reitz (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2010) 519-54, who discusses the case of medicine; on the historians in the period see Greek and Roman Historiography in Late Antiquity, edited by G. Marasco (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003) as well as the literature on Prokopios (as above) and Michael Whitby, ‘Greek Historical Writing after Procopius: Variety and Vitality,’ in The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East. I. Problems in the Literary Source Material, edited by L. Conrad and A. Cameron (Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1992) 25-80. On the chronicle and John Malalas see Studies in John Malalas, edited by B. Croke et al. (Sydney: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1990); Roger D. Scott , ‘Malalas, The Secret History, and Justinian’s Propaganda,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39 (1985) 99-109.

(pp. 66-67) On Romanos the Melodist and his connection to Justinian see Eva Catafygiotu-Topping, ‘On Earthquakes and Fires: Romanos’ Encomium to Justinian,’ Byzantinische Zeitschrift  71 (1978) 22-35; Johannes Koder, ‘Imperial Propaganda in the Kontakia of Romanos the Melode,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 62 (2008) 275-91.