Chapter 4.

From survival to revival, 717–867

Events (p. 87) The key study is by Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (as in Chapter 3); it should be read alongside Brubaker and Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (as in Chapter 3).

(pp. 87-88) ¶ On Leo’s fiscal measures see Vivien Prigent, ‘Les empereurs isauriens et la confiscation des patrimoines pontificaux d’Italie du Sud,’  Mélanges de l’École française de Rome. Moyen Âge 116 (2004) 557-94; on the plague see bibliography for Chapter 2; on Constantine V see Ilse Rochow, Kaiser Konstantin V. (741-775): Materialien zu seinem Leben und Nachleben (Frankfurt/Main et al: Peter Lang, 1994).

(p. 89) ¶ On the Abbasids see Hugh Kennedy, The early Abbasid caliphate: A political history (London: Croon Helm, 1981) as well as The New Cambridge History of Islam, vol I, The Formation of the Islamic World Sixth to Eleventh Centuries, edited by C.F. Robinson (Cambridge: CUP, 2010). On the Carolingians and Italy see Herrin, Formation (as in Chapter 3).

(p. 90) On the Slavs in the Balkans and their integration into the Byzantine state see Werner Seibt, ‘Siegel als Quelle für Slawen und Slawenarchonten in Griechenland,’ Studies in Byzantine Sigillography 6 (1999) 27-36 and his ‘Beobachtungen zu Siegeln früher Slawenarchonten in Griechenland,’ in Βυζάντιο  – Κράτος και κοινωνία. Μνήμη Νίκου Οικονομίδου, edited by A. Avramea, et al (Athens: National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2003) 459-66.

(pp. 90-92) ¶ Iconoclasm is a much debated topic for which authors interpret in different ways the same, rather limited material.  The recent work by Haldon and Brubaker (as in Chapter 3) and more succinctly and openly put in Leslie Brubaker, Inventing Byzantine Iconoclasm (London: Bristol University Press, 2012) occupies a rather revisionist position compared to previous consensus as expressed by Herrin’s  Formation of Christendom (as in Chapter 3). I have tried to offer a measured overview emphasizing the extant evidence and the difficulties in interpreting it. In this I am following the work of Marie France Auzépy as collected in her L’histoire des Iconoclastes (Paris: Association des Amis du Centre d’Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2007) as well as her overview ‘State of emergency (700-8000,’ in The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire (as in the Introduction) 251-91. Thomas F. X Noble, Images, Iconoclasm and the Carolingians (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009) looks at the topic from a Western perspective; for an eastern take see Geoffrey R. D. King, ‘Islam, iconoclasm, and the declaration of doctrine’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 48 (1985), 267–77.

(pp. 92-94) ¶ On Eirene see Judith Herrin, Women in Purple: rulers of Medieval Byzantium (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2001) and Ralph-Johannes Lilie, Byzanz unter Eirene und Konstantin VI. (780-802) (Frankfurt/Main et al: Peter Lang, 1996).

(p. 93) ¶ On Constantine VI’s adultery and its repercussions see Thomas Pratsch, Theodoros Studites (759-826) — zwischen Dogma und Pragma: der Abt des Studiosklosters in Konstantinopel im Spannungsfeld von Patriarch, Kaiser und eigenem Anspruch (Bern: Peter Lang, 2008).

(p. 94) ¶ On the coronation of Charlemagne see Herrin, Formation (as in Chapter 3); on the estrangement of Rome and Constantinople see the chapters by Maria Leontsini and Vassiliki Vlysidou in Byzantine Diplomacy: A Seminar, edited by T. C. Lounghis et al. (Athens: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007), 83–163.

(pp. 94-95) On relations with Bulgaria see Panos Sophoulis, Byzantium and Bulgaria, 775-831 (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012).

(p. 95) ¶ On the Byzantine recognition of Charlemagne’s imperial status see T.C. Lounghis, les ambassades byzantines en Occident depuis la fondation des états barbares jusq’aux Croisades (407-1096) (Athens 1980).

(p. 96) ¶ On the Triumph of Orthodoxy see Herrin, Women in Purple (as above); on the Synodikon of Orthodoxy see Le synodikon de l’Orthodoxie edited with a commentary by J. Gouillard, Travaux et Mémoires 2 (1967) 1-316.

(p. 97) ¶ On the Paulicians see Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World c. 650–1405, edited by J. Hamilton and B. Hamilton (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998).

(pp. 98-99) ¶ On the relationship between Michael III and Basil I see Shaun Tougher, ‘Michael III and Basil the Macedonian: just good friends?’ in Desire and denial in Byzantium: papers from the 31st Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999) 149-58.

Infrastructures (pp. 99-102) Most of the literature on administrative changes in the period cited for Chapter 3 applies to this chapter as well such as   Brubaker and Haldon, Byzantium in the iconoclast era, Zuckerman, ‘Learning from the enemy’ as well as the articles by Dunn and Foss on the transformation of cities. On the growth of Constantinople see Magdalino, Studies on the History and Topography of Byzantine Constantinople (as in chapter 3) and also his ‘The merchant of Constantinople,’ forthcoming in the Acts of the Third Sevgi Gönul International Symposium.

(pp. 99-100) On the economy in the period see Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (as in chapter 1)

(p. 102) On the emergence of family names Werner Seibt, ‘Beinamen, “Spitznamen”, Herkunftsnamen, Familiennamen bis ins 10. Jahrhundert: Der Beitrag der Sigillographie zu einem prosopographischen Problem,’ Studies in Byzantine Sigillography 7 (2002) 119-36.

 Environment For a general study of important aspects of ninth-century Byzantium see Byzantium in the Ninth Century: Dead or Alive? Papers from the Thirtieth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Birmingham, March 1996, edited by L. Brubaker (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998).

(pp. 102-103) On Leo III’s understanding of the imperial office see Dagron, Emperor and Priest (as in Chapter 1); on the Ekloga see the edition Ecloga. Das Gesetzbuch Leons III. und Konstantinos V. edited by L. Burgmann (Frankfurt/Main: Löwenklau Gesellschaft ,1983).

(p. 103) ¶ On Tarasios and other patriarchs of Constantinople of the period see Die Patriarchen der ikonoklastischen Zeit: Germanos I. – Methodios I. (715 – 847), edited by R.-J. Lilie (Frankfurt/Main et al: Peter Lang, 1999) and Dmitry E. Afinogenov, ‘Kωνσταντινούπολις ἐπίσκοπον ἔχει. The rise of the patriarchal power in Byzantium from Nicaenum II to Epanagoga,’ part 1 Erytheia 15 (1994) 45-65 and part 2 Erytheia 17 (1996) 43-71. On John of Damascus see Andrew Louth, St John Damascene (Oxford: OUP, 2002); on the theology of the icon see Mariamna Fortounatto and Mary Cunningham, ‘Theology of the icon,’ in The Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology, edited by M. B. Cunningham and E. Theokritoff (Cambridge: CUP, 2008) 136-49.

(p. 104) On cultural exchange with Islam see Dimitri Gutas, Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early ‘Abbasid Society (London: Routledge, 1998); Maria Mavroudi, A Byzantine Book on Dream Interpretation. The Oneirocriticon of Achmet and Its Arabic Sources (Leiden: Brill, 2002) and Christos Simelidis, ‘The Byzantine Understanding of the Qur’anic Term al-Samad and the Greek Translation of the Qur’an’, Speculum 86 (2011), 887–913. ¶ See also Sidney H. Griffith, ‘John of Damascus and the Church in Syria in the Umayyad Era: The Intellectual and Cultural Milieu of Orthodox Christians in the World of Islam,’ Hugoye 11 (2008) 207-37.

(pp. 104-105) ¶ On Leo the Mathematician see N.G. Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium (London: Duckworth, rev. ed.  1996).

(p. 105) On Photios and his Bibliotheca see Tomas Hägg, ‘Photius at Work: Evidence from the Text of the Bibliotheca,’ Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 14 (1973) 213-22 and Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium (as above). [For more literature on Photios see Chapter 5]

(pp. 105-106) On mission see Jonathan Shepard, ‘Spreading the Word: Byzantine Missions’, in The Oxford History of Byzantium, edited by C. Mango (Oxford: OUP, 2002), 230–47.  ¶ See also Liliana Simeonova, Diplomacy of the Letter and the Cross (Amsterdam: Hackert, 1998) and Sergey A. Ivanov, ‘Religious Missions,’ in the Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire (as in the Introduction) 305– 32, which will be relevant for Chapter 5 as well.

(p. 107) On the Pentarchy see Judith Herrin, ‘The Pentarchy: Theory and Reality in the Ninth Century,’ in her collection of essays Margins and Metropolis: Authority across the Byzantine Empire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013), 239–66.