Chapter 5.

Expansion and radiance, 867–1056

Events (pp. 108-11) For an overview see Mark Whittow, The making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600–1025 (London: Macmillan, 1996) and the Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire (as in the Introduction).

(p. 110) ¶ On the Varangians see Sigfús Blöndal, The Varangians of Byzantium, translated, revised and edited by B.S. Benedikz (Cambridge, CUP, 1978); on various important aspects of the period see Byzantium in the year 1000, edited by Paul Magdalino (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003).

(pp. 110-11) ¶ On the period after 1025 see Michael Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025-1204. A political history (London and New York: Longman, 2nd ed., 1997).

(pp. 112-13) On the Byzantine expansion in Italy see Βυζαντινά στρατεύματα στη Δύση (as in Chapter 2) and Vasiliki Vlysidou, ‘Συμβολή στη μελέτη της εξωτερικής πολιτικής του Βασιλείου Α΄ στη δεκαετία 867-877,’ Symmeikta 4 (1981) 301-315 and her ‘Αντιδράσεις στη δυτική πολιτική Βασιλείου Α’. Διαμόρφωση νέας στρατιωτικής ηγεσίας,’ Symmeikta  5 (1983) 127-41.

(p. 113) ¶  On Otto II and Theophanu see The Empress Theophano, edited by A. Davids (Cambridge: CUP, 1995).

(pp. 113-14) ¶ On the rise of Venice see Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice (Cambridge: CUP, 1988); and the short overview by Guillaume Saint-Guillain, ‘Les Vénitiens et l’État byzantine avant le XIIe siècle,’ in Économie et société à Byzance (VIIIe-XIIe siècle), edited by S. Metivier (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2007) 254-59, which discusses previous scholarship.

(p. 114) ¶  On Italy in the 11th century see André Guillou, Studies on Byzantine Italy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1970), especially his paper on the expanding society; see also Benjamin Pohl, ‘Schnittpunkt Süditalien: Päpste, Patriarchen und Normannen im späteren 11. Jahrhundert, 1054 und 1098,’ in Byzanz in Europa. Europas östliches Erbe, edited by M. Altripp (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011) 97-113.

(p. 114-15) ¶ On relations with Bulgaria in this period see Paul Stephenson, Byzantium’s Balkan Frontier (Cambridge: CUP, 2000).

(p. 115) ¶  On the Khazars see Constantin Zuckerman, ‘On the Date of the Khazars’ Conversion to Judaism and the Chronology of the Kings of the Rus Oleg and Igor. A Study of the Anonymous Khazar Letter from the Genizah of Cairo,’ Revue des études byzantines 53 (1995) 237-70; on the Rus see Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin, The emergence of the Rus, 750-1200 (London and New York: Longman, 1996).

(p. 116) ¶  On the conversion of the Rus see Jonathan Shepard, ‘Conversions and Regimes Compared: The Rus’ and the Poles, ca. 1000,’ in East Central and Eastern Europe in the Early Middle Ages, edited by F. Curta (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2005) 254-82; On Basil II and Bulgaria see Catherine Holmes, Basil II and the Governance of Empire (976–1025), (Oxford: OUP, 2005) and Paul Stephenson, The legend of Basil the Bulgar-slayer (Cambridge: CUP, 2003).

(pp. 116-17) ¶  On the Pechenegs see Florin Curta, ‘The image and archaeology of the Pechenegs,’ Banatica 23 (2013) 143-202.

(p. 117) On the Byzantine expansion in the East see Catherine Holmes, ‘How the East was won in the reign of Basil II,’ in Eastern Approaches to Byzantium, edited by A. Eastmond (Aldershort: Ashgate, 2001), 41–56 and ¶ William Garood, ‘The illusion of continuity: Nikephoros Phokas, John Tzimiskes and the eastern border,’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 37 (2013) 20-34; on Armenia see T.W. Greenwood, ‘Armenian neighbours (600-1054),’ in The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire (as in the Introduction) 333-64 and The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, vol 1, The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth, edited by Richard G. Hovannisian (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997).

Infrastructures (p. 118) On the economy of the period see the relevant chapters in the Economic History of Byzantium (as in chapter 4) together with Alan Harvey, Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire, 900–1200 (Cambridge: CUP, 1989). ¶ Archibald Dunn, ‘The exploitation and control of woodland and scrubland in the Byzantine world,’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 16 (1992) 235-98, discusses the recession of woodland in favour of agricultural land which suggests a rising population. See also the case studies of three cities Thebes, Corinth and Athens.

(pp. 118-19) ¶ On the Venetians’ role in trade with Byzantium see David Jacoby, ‘Venetian commercial expansion in the Eastern Mediterranean, 8th-11th centuries,’ in Byzantine Trade, edited by M. Mundell Mango (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009) 371-91.

(p. 119) ¶ On the Book of the Eparch see Johannes Koder, ‘The Authority of the Eparchos in the Markets of Constantinople (according to the Book of the Eparch),’ in Authority in Byzantium, edited by P. Armstrong (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013) 83-108.

(pp. 119-20) On the legislation against the powerful magnates see Eric McGeer, The Land Legislation of the Macedonian Emperors (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2000); on the social aspects of this conflict see also Rosemary Morris, ‘The powerful and the poor in tenth century Byzantium’, Past and Present 73 (1976), 3–27.

(pp. 120-21) ¶ On the fiscalization of military service see John Haldon, ‘Military Service, Military Lands, and the Status of Soldiers: Current Problems and Interpretations,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 47 (1993) 1-67.

(pp. 121-22) ¶ On the military aristocracy see the collected studies by Jean-Claude Cheynet, The Military Aristocracy and its Military Function (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006) and his Pouvoir et contestations à Byzance (963-1210) (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1990) on the numerous (mostly) aristocratic rebellions against the imperial power in the period.  Vasiliki Vlysidou’s Αριστοκρατικές οικογένειες και εξουσία (9ος – 10ος αι.). Έρευνες πάνω στα διαδοχικά στάδια αντιμετώπισης της αρμενο–παφλαγονικής και της καππαδοκικής αριστοκρατίας (Thessalonica: Banias, 2001) examines the competition and conflicts between the most powerful military aristocratic clans.

(p. 122) On mercenaries from the North see Crinje Cigaar, ‘Réfugiés et employés occidentaux au Xe siècle,’ Médiévales 12 (1987) 19-24.

Environment (pp. 122-23) On Photios and his role in the period see Vlada Stanković, ‘Living Icon of Christ: Photios’ Characterization of the Patriarch in the Introduction of the Eisagoge and its Significance’, in ΣΥΜΜΕΙΚΤΑ, edited by I. Stevović (Belgrade, 2012), 39–43. ¶ On the role of patriarchs and their relationship to imperial power see also Vlada Stanković, ‘The Path toward Michael Keroularios: The Power, Self- presentation and Propaganda of the Patriarchs of Constantinople in the Late 10th and Early 11th Century,’ in Zwei Sonnen am Goldenen Horn? Kaiserliche und patriarchale Macht im byzantinischen Mittelalter, Teilband 2, edited by M. Grünbart et al. (Münster: Lit Verlag, 2013) 137-55.

(p. 123) On the path to the schism between Rome and Constantinople see Henry Chadwick, East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church. From Apostolic Times until the Council of Florence (Oxford: OUP, 2005) – this study will be useful for all the following chapters of this book. See also the more specialist treatment by Tia M. Kolbaba, Inventing Latin Heretics: Byzantines and the Filioque in the Ninth century (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2008).

(pp. 123-24) On the schism of 1054 see Evangelos Chrysos, ‘1054: Schism?’ in Christianita d’Occidente e Christianita d’Oriente (Spoleto: Fondazione Centro italiano di studi sull’alto Medioevo, 2004) 547-68 and J. R. Ryder, ‘Changing perspectives on 1054,’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 35 (2011) 20-37 and the response by Tia Kolbaba in the same volume, pp. 38-44. On the filioque see also A. Edward Siecienski, The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy (Oxford: OUP, 2010).

(p. 124) On art and architecture in the period see The Glory of Byzantium: art and culture of the Middle Byzantine era, A.D. 843–1261, edited by H. C. Evans, and W. D. Wixom (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997); on the workings and the allure of the Byzantine court see Byzantine Court Culture from 829 to 1204, edited by H. Maguire (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1997). ¶ On Basil I and his building activities see Paul Magdalino, ‘Observations on the Nea Ekklesia of Basil I,’ Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik 37 (1987) 51-64; on the major monasteries in the period see Cyril Mango, ‘Les monuments de l’architecture du XIème siècle et leur signification historique et sociale,’ Travaux et Mémoires 6 (1976) 351-65.

(p. 125) ¶ Recent research has revealed that a number of important churches in this period were decorated with polychrome ceramic tiles, see A lost at rediscovered: the architectural ceramics of Byzantium, edited by S. E. J. Gerstel and J. A. Lauffenburger (Baltimore: The Walters Art Museum, 2001). On the major churches in Greece in this period see Doula Mouriki, ‘Stylistic Trends in Monumental Painting of Greece during the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 34/35 (1980/1981) 77-124.

(p. 126) ¶ On Byzantine monasticism the best overview is given in Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents: A Complete Translation of the Surviving Founders’ Typika and Testaments, edited by J. Thomas and A. Constantinides Hero with the assistance of G. Constable, 5 vols (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2000). See especially the chapter on ‘Athonite Monasteries’ and on the early rules of Athanasios for his Lavra as well as the Typika (foundation charters) of John Tzimiskes and Constantine IX Monomachos for the Athonite communities.

(pp. 126-27) On literary and intellectual trends see Anthony Kaldellis, Hellenism in Byzantium: the transformations of Greek identity and the reception of the classical tradition (Cambridge: CUP, 2007); ¶ Catherine Holmes, ‘Byzantine Political Culture and Compilation Literature in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries: Some Preliminary Inquiries,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 64 (2010) 55-80 as well as Paul Magdalino, ‘Knowledge in Authority and Authorised History: The Imperial Intellectual Programme of Leo VI and Constantine VII,’ in Authority in Byzantium (as above) 187-209.

(pp. 127-28) On the hardening of attitudes between East and West see The Complete Works of Liudprand of Cremona, translated by P. Squatriti (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2007) and Henry Mayr-Harting, ‘Liudprand of Cremona’s Account of his Legation to Constantinople (968) and Ottonian Imperial Strategy’, English Historical Review 116 (2001) 539–56.

(p. 128) ¶ The notion of an imagined community linking Byzantium and its orthodox neighbours was first put forward by Dimitri Obolensky in The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe 500–1453 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971); the concept has been revisited by Jonathan Shepard, ‘Byzantium’s Overlapping Circles,’ in Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London 2006, edited by Elizabeth Jeffreys, vol. 1 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), 15-56.