Chapter 6.

The appearance of strength, 1056–1204

 Events The standard handbook on the period overall is still Michael Angold’s The Byzantine Empire 1025–1204 (as in Chapter 5).

(p. 130) The impact of the defeat at Manzikert is contextualized in Carole Hillenbrand, Turkish Myth and Muslim Symbol: The Battle of Manzikert (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007). ¶ On the fall of Bari see Βυζαντινά στρατεύματα στη Δύση (as in Chapter 2).

(p. 131) ¶ On Roussel (or Ursel) de Bailleul see Georgios A. Lebeniotes, Το στασιαστικό κίνημα του Νορμανδού Ουρσελίου στην Μικρά Aσία (1073–1076) (Thessalonica: Banias, 2004); On the Normans and their aggressive policy against the Byzantine Empire see W.B. McQueen, ‘Relations between the Normans and Byzantium, 1071-1112’, Byzantion 56 (1986) 427-76. On Alexios and his reign see Alexios I Komnenos, vol. 1, Papers, edited by M. Mullett and D. Smythe (Belfast: Queen’s University of Belfast Press, 1996).

(p. 132) ¶ On Alexios’ privileges to Venice see Peter Frankopan, ‘Byzantine trade privileges to Venice in the eleventh century: the chrysobull of 1092,’ Journal of Medieval History 30 (2004) 135-60, but bear in mind that the suggested late dating (1092 instead of 1082) is contested.

(pp. 132-34) There is ample literature on the question of the Crusades from the very recent work by Peter Frankopan, The First Crusade: the Call from the East (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012) to more specialized studies such as The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World, edited by A. E. Laiou and R. P. Mottahedeh (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2001) and Ralph-Johannes Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096–1204, translated by J. C. Morris and J. E. Ridings (Oxford: OUP, 1993). The study by Jonathan Shepard, ‘Cross-purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade’, in The First Crusade Origins and Impact, edited by J. Phillips (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997), 107–129 is particularly useful.

(pp. 135-36) On Manuel I see Paul Magdalino, The empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180 (Cambridge: CUP, 1993).

(p. 136) ¶ On the Byzantine presence in Italy in the period see Βυζαντινά στρατεύματα στη Δύση (as in Chapter 2); on relations with the Normans se Donald Matthew, The Norman Kingdom of Sicily (Cambridge: CUP, 1992).

(pp. 138-39) On the events leading to 1204 see Michael Angold’s, ‘The road to 1204: the Byzantine background to the Fourth Crusade,’ Journal of Medieval History 25 (1999) 257–78 ¶ and Angeliki Laiou, ‘Byzantium and the Crusades in the Twelfth Century: Why was the Fourth Crusade so Late in Coming?’ in Urbs capta: The Fourth Crusade and its Consequences, edited by Angeliki E. Laiou (Paris: Lethielleux, 2005) 17-40.

Infrastructures (pp. 139-40) On the economy see the relevant chapters in the Economic History of Byzantium (as in chapter 4) together with Harvey’s Economic expansion (as in Chapter 5).

(p. 140) The key issue of the debasement of the coinage is discussed by Costas Kaplanis, ‘The Debasement of the “Dollar of the Middle Ages”’, The Journal of Economic History 63 (2003), 768–801. ¶ On the system of honours and the tapping of resources of non-traditional elites see Jean-Claude Cheynet, ‘Le rôle de la “bourgeoisie constantinopolitaine”: XIe-XIIe siècle, Zbornik Radova Vizantološkog Instituta 46 (2009) 89-106.

(pp. 140-41) The chapter by Magdalino, ‘Innovations in government,’ in Alexios I Komnenos (as above) 146-66, is crucial for the understanding of the Komnenian reforms.

(p. 141) On pronoia see  Mark C. Bartusis, Land and privilege in Byzantium: the institution of pronoia (Cambridge: CUP, 2013), but see also on the flipside of the coin: Kostis Smyrlis, ‘Private property and state finances. The emperor’s right to donate his subjects’ land in the Comnenian period,’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies  33 (2009) 115–32.

(pp. 141-42) The rise of the Italian city states and their relations with Byzantium are explored in Nicol, Byzantium and Venice (as in Chapter 5) and Steven A. Epstein, Genoa and the Genoese, 958–1528 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996). ¶ On the investments of Venetians in Byzantium see Tassos Papacostas, ‘Secular landholdings and Venetians in 12th-century Cyprus,’ Byzantinische Zeitschrift 92 (1999) 479-501 and Pamela Armstrong, ‘Merchants of Venice at Sparta in the 12th century,’ in Sparta and Laconia from prehistory to pre-modern, edited by W. G. Cavanagh et al. (London: British School at Athens, 2009) 313-21. For a very useful collection and discussion of all treaties between Byzantium and the Italian city states see Dafni  Penna, The Byzantine Imperial Acts to Venice, Pisa and Genoa, 10th-12th centuries: a comparative legal study (The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, 2012).

(pp. 142-44) ¶ On the centrifugal trends in the 12th century see Nicholas Oikonomides, ‘La décomposition de l’empire byzantin à la veille de 1204 et les origines de l’empire de Nicée: à propos de la Partitio Romaniae,’ in Actes du XVe Congrès International des Études Byzantines. Rapports, (Athens: Bibliotheke tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Etaireias, 1976) 3-28; Magdalino The empire of Manuel I Komnenos (as above) and Alexios G. K. Savvides, Βυζαντινά στασιαστικά και αυτονομιστικά κινήματα στα Δωδεκάνησα και στη Μικρά Ασία 1189-c. 1240 μ.Χ. (Athens: Domos, 1987).

Environment The best overview is provided by Michael Angold, Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081–1261 (Cambridge: CUP, 1995). I have based my presentation of the cultural and intellectual life of the period on Robert Browning, ‘Enlightenment and Repression in Byzantium in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’, Past & Present 69 (1975), 3–23 and Kaldellis, Hellenism (as in Chapter 5), chapter 5.

(p. 144) On Psellos see Stratis Papaioannou, Michael Psellos: Rhetoric and authorship in Byzantium (Cambridge: CUP, 2013)

(p. 145) ¶ On John Italos see Jean Gouillard, ‘Le procès officiel de Jean l‘Italien. Les actes et leurs sous-entendus,’, Travaux et Mémoires 9 (1985) 133-74 and Pâris Gounaridis, ‘Le procès de Jean dit Italos revisé,’ Historein 6 (2006) 35-47. On Paulicians and Bogomils see Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World (as in Chapter 5) and on Alexios I’s treatment of Italos and the Bogomils see Dion Smythe, ‘Alexios I and the heretics: the account of Anna Komnene’s Alexiad’, in Alexios I Komnenos (as above), 232–59. On Alexios’ Edict of 1107 see Paul Magdalino, ‘The reform edict of 1107,’ in Alexios I Komnenos (as above), 199-218.

(pp. 146-47) On the major historians of the twelfth century see Anna Komnene and Her Times, edited by Thalia Gouma-Peterson, (New York and London: Garland, 2000); Alicia Simpson, Niketas Choniates: a historiographical study (Oxford: OUP, 2013); ¶ on scholarship in the period see Anthony Kaldellis, ‘Classical Scholarship in Twelfth-Century Byzantium,’ in Medieval Greek Commentaries on the Nicomachean Ethics, edited by C. Barber and D. Jenkins (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009) 2-43 and Glen M. Cooper, Byzantium between East and West: Competing Hellenisms in the Alexiad of Anna Komnene and her Contemporaries,’ in East Meets West in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, edited by A. Classen and M. Sandidge (Berlin and New York: De Gruyter, 2013) 263-87; on new literary genres in the period see Roderick Beaton, The Medieval Greek Romance (London and New York: Routledge, 2nd ed., 1996) ¶ and Four Byzantine Novels, translated with commentary by E. Jeffreys (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2012).

(p. 147) ¶ On religious debates with the Latin West see Tia M. Kolbaba, ‘Byzantine Perceptions of Latin Religious “Errors “: Themes and Changes from 850 to 1350,’ in The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World (as above) 117-43.

(p. 148) ¶ On the Komnenian cult of commemoration see Titos Papamastorakis, ‘The display of accumulated wealth in luxury icons: gift-giving from the Byzantine Aristocracy to God in the twelfth century,’ in Byzantine Icons: Art, Technique and Technology, edited by M. Vassilaki (Heraklion: Crete University Press, 2002) 35-47; on the Orphanage of Saint Paul see Timothy S. Miller, The Orphans of Byzantium. Child Welfare in the Christian Empire (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2003).

(pp. 148-49) ¶ On the Pantokrator monastery see The Pantokrator Monastery in Constantinople, edited by S. Kotzabassi (Boston and Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013); on the international allure of Byzantium see Ernst Kitzinger, ‘The Byzantine Contribution to Western Art of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20, (1966) 25-47; Hans Bloemsma, ‘Venetian Crossroads. East and West and the Origins of Modernity in Twelfth-Century Mosaics in San Marco,’ Journal of Intercultural Studies 31 (2010) 299-312; Tassos Papacostas, ‘The medieval progeny of the Holy Apostles: trails of architectural imitation across the Mediterranean,’ The Byzantine World (as in the Introduction) 386-405; Elena Boeck, ‘Simulating the Hippodrome: The Performance of Power in Kiev’s St. Sophia,’ The Art Bulletin 91 (2009) 283-301; Elisabeth Piltz, ‘Schwedisches mittelalter und die byzantinische frage,’, Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History 50 (1981) 17-32; Selma Jónsdóttir, An 11th century Byzantine Last Judgement in Iceland (Reykjavik: Almenna Bókafédagio, 1959) and the Plenary Session ‘Byzantium and the North’ in Byzantium, Identity, Image, Influence. XIX International Congress of Byzantine Studies, edited by K. Fledelius (Copenhagen: Eventus, 1996) 137-218.