Chapter 7.

The legacy of fragmentation, 1204–1341

 Events (p. 150) On the political landscape after the Fourth Crusade see two general works Urbs capta: The Fourth Crusade and its Consequences (as in Chapter 6) and Identities and allegiances in the eastern Mediterranean after 1204, edited by J. Herrin and G. Saint-Guillain (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011).

(pp. 150-51) There are numerous specialist studies that deal with each of the states that emerged in the period. Nicaea: Michael Angold, A Byzantine government in exile: government and society under the Laskarids of Nicaea, 1204–1261 (London: OUP, 1975)

(p. 151) Epiros: Donald M. Nicol, The Despotate of Epiros, 1267–1479: A Contribution to the History of Greece in the Middle Ages (Cambridge: CUP, 2010). ¶ On the situation in Constantinople see Brendan J. McGuire, ‘Evidence for religious accommodation in Latin Constantinople: a new approach to bilingual liturgical texts,’ Journal of Medieval History 39 (2013) 342-56.

(pp. 151-52) Trebizond: Antony Eastmond, Art and Identity in Thirteenth-Century Byzantium. Hagia Sophia and the Empire of Trebizond (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004)

(pp. 152-53); ¶ On the Latin states see Filip Van Tricht, The Latin Renovatio of Byzantium. The Empire of Constantinople (1204–1228) (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011); Peter Lock, The Franks in the Aegean, 1204–1500 (London: Longman, 1995).

(pp. 153-54) ¶ On the Cyclades see Guillaume Saint-Guillain, ‘Les conquérants de l’Archipel: l’empire latin de Constantinople, Venise et les premiers seigneurs des Cyclades,’ in Quarta crociata. Venezia, Bisanzio, Impero latino, edited by Gh. Ortalli, et al (Venice: IVSLA, 2006), vol. 1, 125-237 and his ‘Seigneuries insulaires: les Cyclades au temps de la domination latine (XIIIe-XVe siècle),’ Médiévales 47 (2004) 31-45.

(p. 154) ¶ On the competition between Nicaea and Epiros see Alkmene Stauridou-Zaphraka, Νίκαια και Ήπειρος τον 13ο αιώνα – ιδεολογική αντιπαράθεση (Thessalonica: Banias, 1991); On the political situation in the Balkans see John V. A. Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987)

(pp. 154-55) On the coup of Michael VII and the history of Byzantium under his dynasty see Donald M. Nicol’s The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453 (Cambridge: CUP, 1993), a detailed study, which is now largely outdated.

(p. 155) ¶ On the Gasmouloi see Georgios Makris, ‘Die Gasmulen,’ Thesaurismata 22 (1992) 44-96.

(p. 156) ¶ On the schism of the Arsenites see Franz Tinnefeld, ‘Das Schisma zwischen Anhängern und Gegnern des Patriarchen Arsenios in der orthodoxen Kirche von Byzanz (1265–1310),’ Byzantinische Zeitschrift 105 (2012) 143-66 and Paris Gounaridis, Το κίνημα των Αρσενιατών (1261-1310) (Athens: Domos, 1999); On the Union of the Churches see Aristeides Papadakis, Crisis in Byzantium. The Filioque Controversy in the Patriarchate of Gregory II of Cyprus (1283-1289) (Crestwood, NY: St Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1997) and Alexandra Riebe, Rom in Gemeinschaft mit Konstantinopel: Patriarch Johannes XI. Bekkos als Verteidiger der Kirchenunion von Lyon (1274) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005).

(pp. 156-57) ¶ On the Sicilian Vespers see Stephan R. Epstein, An island for itself. Economic development and social change in late medieval Sicily (Cambridge: CUP, 1992) and Lawrence V. Mott, ‘Trade as a weapon during the War of the Sicilian Vespers.’ Medieval Encounters 9 (2004) 236-43.

(p. 156) ¶ On Michael VIII’s policy in the Aegean see Michael Angold, ‘Michael VIII Palaiologos and the Aegean,’ in Liquid & Multiple (as above) 27-44.

(p. 157) ¶ On Andronikos II see Angeliki E. Laiou, Constantinople and the Latins. The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II 1282-1328 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972); on Theodore Metochites see The Kariye Camii Reconsidered, edited by H.A. Klein et al. (Istanbul: Istanbul Research Institute, 2011) and Kariye. From Thedore Metochites to Thomas Whittemore, edited by H.A. Klein et al. (Istanbul: Pera Museum, 2007); on patriarch Athanasios I see John Lawrence Boojamra, Church Reform in the Late Byzantine Empire. A study for the patriarchate of Athanasios of Constantinople (Thessalonica: Patriarchikon Idryma Paterikon Meleton, 1982) and Joseph Gill, ‘Emperor Andronicus II and Patriarch Athanasius I,’  Byzantina 2 (1970) 13-19.

(p. 158) On Anatolia see Gary Leiser, ‘The Turks in Anatolia before the Ottomans,’ in The New Cambridge History of Islam, Vol 2, edited by M. Fierro (Cambridge: CUP, 2010), 301–12 and more generally The Cambridge History of Turkey, Vol.1: Byzantium to Turkey, 1071-1453, edited by K. Fleet (Cambridge: CUP, 2009), especially the chapter ‘Anatolia 1300-1451’ by Rudi Paul Lindner, pp. 102-37. On the question of the army and the use of mercenaries see Marc C. Bartusis, The late Byzantine army: arms and society, 1204–1453 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992). ¶ See also Savvas Kyriakidis, ‘The employment of large groups of mercenaries in Byzantium in the period ca. 1290-1305 as viewed by the sources,’ Byzantion 79 (2009) 208-30 and his book Warfare in Late Byzantium, 1204-1453 (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011).

(p. 159) ¶ On the civil war between the two Andronikoi see Ursula Victoria Bosch, Kaider Andronikos III. Palaiologos. Versuch einer Darstellung der byzantinischen Geschichte in den Jahren 1321-1341 (Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1965).

(pp. 160-61) On Hesychasm see the overview by Dirk Krausmüller, ‘The rise of hesychasm’, in The Cambridge History of Christianity, Vol. 5: Eastern Christianity, (as in the Introduction), 101–26.

Infrastructures (p. 161-62) On the economic developments in this period see the chapters by Klaus-Peter Matschke on the Urban Economy, and Trade as well as the chapter by John Day on the Levant trade in the Economic History of Byzantium (as in the Inttroduction).

(p. 161) ¶ On Clarentza see Angéliki Tzavara, Clarentza, une ville médiévale de la Morée latine, XIIIe-XVe siècles (Venice: Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies, 2008).

(p. 162) ¶ On the Nicaean economy see Ekaterini Mitsiou, ‘Ideology and economy in the politics of John III Vatatzes (1221-1254),’ in Change in the Byzantine World in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. First International Sevgi Gönül Byzantine Studies Symposium: Proceedings, edited by A. Ödekan, et al. (Istanbul: Vehbi Koç Vafki, 2010) 195-205.

(pp. 162-63) ¶ On the Palaiologan aristocracy see Dionysios Stathakopoulos, ‘The Dialectics of Expansion and Retraction: Recent Scholarship on the Palaiologan Aristocracy,’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 33 (2009) 92-101.

(p. 163) The fate of cities is discussed in Demetrios Kyritses in ‘The “common chrysobulls” of cities and the notion of property in late Byzantium,’ Symmeikta 13 (1999), 229–45. On more specific developments see Kostis Smyrlis, ‘Taxation Reform and the Pronoia System in Thirteenth-Century Byzantium’, in Change in the Byzantine World in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries (as above) 211–17 and also his ‘The State, the Land and Private Property. Confiscating Church and Monastic Properties in the Palaiologan Period’, in Church and Society in Late Byzantium, edited by D. Angelov (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2009), 58–87. ¶ See also Tonia Kiousopoulou, Οι «αόρατες» βυζαντινές πόλεις στον ελλαδικό χώρο (13ος15ος αιώνας) (Athens: Polis, 2013).

(p. 164) ¶ On the peasant population in Macedonia see Angeliki E. Laiou-Thomadakis, Peasant Society in the Late Byzantine Empire. A Social and Demographic Study (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977). Numerous of the publications of Kostis Smyrlis are also based on the Athonite evidence that Laiou pioneered. On the topic of taxation in the period, see: Kostis Smyrlis, ‘Financial Crisis and the Limits of Taxation under Andronikos II Palaiologos (1282-1321)’, in Power and Subversion in Byzantium, edited by D. Angelov and M. Saxby (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013) 71-82.

(p. 164-65) ¶ On the mesoi see Klaus-Peter Matschke and Franz Tinnefeld, Die Gesellschaft im späten Byzanz: Gruppen, Strukturen und Lebensformen (Cologne, Weimar and Vienna: Böhlau, 2001); on the archontes see Michael Angold, ‘Archons and dynasts: Local aristocracies and the cities of the later Byzantine Empire,’ in The Byzantine Aristocracy IX to XIII Centuries, edited by M. Angold (Oxford: B.A.R., 1984) 236-59 and Nevra Necipoğlu, ‘The aristocracy in late Byzantine Thessalonike: A case study of the city’s Archontes (late 14th and early 15th centuries),’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 57 (2003) 133-51.

(p. 165) ¶ On the debates against usury see Angeliki E. Laiou, ‘Economic Concerns and Attitudes of the Intellectuals of Thessalonike,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 57 (2003) 205-23 and her ‘Le débat sur les droits du fisc et les droits régaliens au début du 14e siècle,’ Revue des études byzantines 58 (2000) 97-122 as well as Marie-Hélène Congourdeau and Olivier Delouis, ‘La Supplique à la très pieuse augusta sur l’intérêt de Nicolas Cabasilas,’ Travaux et Mémoires 16 [= Mélanges Cécile Morrisson] (2010) 205-36.

Environment (p. 165)  ¶ On cases of Mediterranean Gothic see Maria Georgopoulou, ‘Gothic Architecture and Sculpture in Latin Greece and Cyprus,’ in  Byzance et le monde extérieur, Contacts, relations, échanges, edited by M. Balard, et al. (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2005) 225-54.

(pp. 165-66) ¶ On the mixed society in the Morea see Viewing the Morea. Land and people in the late Medieval Peloponnese, edited by S. E.J. Gerstel (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2013).

(p. 166) ¶ On Nikephoros Blemmydes see his A partial account, Introduction, translation and notes by J. A. Munitiz (Leuven: Peeters, 1998). Byzantine ideology in the period is the topic of Dimiter Angelov, Imperial ideology and political thought in Byzantium, 1204–1330 (Cambridge: CUP, 2006). On education in the early Palaiologan period see Costas N. Constantinides’ Higher education in Byzantium in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries (1204–ca 1310) (Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre, 1982). ¶ On the construction of identity in the period see Gill Page, Being Byzantine. Greek identity before the Ottomans (Cambridge: CUP, 2008); On Michael VIII and Constantinople see Ruth Macrides, ‘The New Constantine and the New Constantinople – 1261?’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 6 (1980) 13-41 and Alice-Mary Talbot, ‘The Restoration of Constantinople under Michael VIII,’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 47 (1993) 243-61; on buildings under Andronikos II see her ‘Building Activity in Constantinople under Andronikos II: The Role of Women Patrons in the Construction and Restoration of Monasteries,’ in Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography and Eveeryday Life, edited by N. Necipoğlu (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2001) 329-44.

(pp. 166-67) ¶ On the Chora/Kariye see The Kariye Camii Reconsidered  and Kariye. From Thedore Metochites to Thomas Whittemore (both as above). This is connected to the literary and artistic output in the period surveyed by Edmund B. Fryde, The Early Palaeologan Renaissance 1261–1360 (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2000) while the catalogue of the major exhibition Byzantium: faith and power (1261–1557), edited by Helen C. Evans, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004) is dedicated to art.

(p. 167) ¶ On the Byzantine influence on Italian painting see Hans Bloemsma, ‘Byzantine Art and Early Italian Painting,’ in Byzantine Art and Renaissance Europe, edited by A. Lymberopoulou and R. Duits (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013) 37-59.

(pp. 168-69) The work of Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium (as in Chapter 4) examines scholars and scholarship in the period such as Planoudes and Magistros. A new take on late Byzantine intellectuals can be found in Niels Gaul, ‘The Twitching Shroud: collective construction of paideia in the circle of Thomas Magistros’, Segno e testo 5 (2007), 263–340 ¶ and for a much more detailed account see his book Thomas Magistros und die spätbyzantinische Sophistik. Studien zum Humanismus urbaner Eliten in der frühen Palaiologenzeit (Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 2011).

(p. 170) ¶ On late Byzantine views of Italian political affairs see Vasileios Syros, ‘Between Chimera and Charybdis: Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Views on the Political Organization of the Italian City-States,’ Journal of Early Modern History 14 (2010) 451-504.