Chapter 8.

Heading for the Fall, 1341-1453

Events (p. 171) ¶ On the career of Alexios Apokaukos, see Georgios Makris, ‘Alexios Apokaukos und sein Porträt im Codex Paris. gr. 2144,’ in Geschehenes und Geschriebenes. Studien zu Ehren von Günther S. Heinrich und Klaus-Peter Matschke, edited by S. Kolditz and R. C. Müller (Leipzig: Eudora Verlag, 2005), 157-179. On his opponent, John Kantakouzenos see Donald M. Nicol, The reluctant emperor: a biography of John Cantacuzene, Byzantine emperor and monk, c.1295-1383 (Cambridge: CUP, 2002).

(p. 172) ¶ On the Zealots in Thessalonica see Les zélotes: une révolte urbaine à Thessalonique au 14ème siècle: le dossier des sources, traduction des sources sous la direction de Marie-Hélène Congourdeau; introduction, notes, conclusion par Marie-Hélène Congourdeau (Paris: Beauchesne, 2013) which offers a collection and interpretation of all sources on this urban uprising and discusses the previous literature. The fall of the half-dome of the Hagia Sophia in late 1346 is recorded in a homily by Alexios Makrembolites edited by Stavros I. Kourouses, ‘Αι αντιλήψεις περί των εσχάτων του κόσμου και η κατά το έτος 1346 πτώσις του τρούλλου της Αγίας Σοφίας’, Επετηρίς Εταιρείας Βυζαντινών Σπουδών 37 (1969-1970) 211-50.

On the Black Death as the backdrop of the last century of Byzantium see Ole J. Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353: The Complete History (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2004), a study written by one of the authorities on plague in history. ¶ On the Black Death in Byzantium see the unjustly little-known study by Kostas P. Kostes, Στον καιρό της πανώλης (Herakleion: Crete University Press, 1995) and Marie-Hélène Congourdeau, ‘La peste noire à Constantinople de 1348 à 1466’, Medicina nei secoli, 11/2 (1999), 377-90.

(p. 173) ¶ On the question of the Byzantine fleet in the period see Klaus-Peter Matschke, ‘Johannes Kanakuzenos, Alexios Apokaukos und die byzantinische Flotte in der Bürgerkriegsperiode 1340-1355,’ in Actes du XIVe Congrès International des Etudes Byzantines, vol. 2 (Bukarest: Romanian Academy of Sciences, 1975), 193-205.

(p. 174) ¶ On Palamas in captivity see Anna Philippidis-Braat, ‘La captivité de Palamas chez les Turcs: Dossier et commentaire’, Travaux et Mémoires 7 (1979), 109-222. On Serbia see Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans (as in Chapter 7) and Byzantium and Serbia in the 14th century, edited by E. Papadopoulou and D. Dialete (Athens: National Hellenic Research Foundation, 1996).

(p. 175) ¶ On Thessalonica in the period see Dumbarton Oaks Papers 57 (2003) an issue devoted to the city.

(p. 176) ¶ On the Crusade of Nikopolis see David Nicolle, Nicopolis 1396: The Last Crusade (London: Osprey, 1999). On Manuel II see: John Barker, Manuel II Paleologus (1391–1425): A Study in Late Byzantine Statesmanship (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1969); on his journey to the West see Glen Peers, ‘Manuel II Paleologos’s Ekphrasis on a Tapestry in the Louvre: Word over Image,’ Revue des études byzantines 61 (2003) 201-214  and Charalambos Dendrinos, ‘Manuel II Palaeologus in Paris (1400-1402): Theology, Diplomacy, and politics,’ in Greeks, Latins, and intellectual history, 1204 – 1500, edited by M. Hinterberger and C. Schabel (Leuven:  Peeters, 2011), 397-422.

(p. 177) The best overview of the period is to be found in Jonathan Harris, The end of Byzantium (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010).  ¶ On the political turmoil after Bayezid’s capture by the Mongols in 1402 see: Dimitris J. Kastritsis, The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman Civil War of 1402-13 (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2007).

(p. 179) ¶ On the council of Ferrara-Florence apart from Henry Chadwick, East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church (as in Chapter 1) see also Paris Gounaridis, ‘Πολιτικὲς διαστάσεις τῆς συνόδου Φεράρας-Φλωρεντίας’, Thesaurismata 31 (2001), 107-129 and Judith Herrin and Stuart M. McManus, ‘Renaissance Encounters: Byzantium meets the West at the Council of Ferrara-Florence 1438-9,’ in Renaissance Encounters: Greek East and Latin West, .edited by D. Gondicas and M. S. Brownlee (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012) 35-56. The main Byzantine source on the Council, Sylvester Syropoulos, is now partly translated with ample comments and accompanying information here

(p. 180) On the fall of Constantinople in 1453 see Marios Philippides and Walter K. Hanak, Siege and Fall of Constantinople in 1453: Historiography, Topography,and Military Studies (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011), which is more technical, and the more readable Roger Crowley, Constantinople: the last great siege, 1453 (London: Faber and Faber, 2005). ¶ A complete collection of sources on the fall of Constantinople is given in La Caduta di Constantinopoli, edited by A. Pertusi, 2 vols (Rome: Arnoldo Mondadori, 1976). The second volume with the subtitle L’eco nel mondo includes references to the impact of the event on contemporaries around the world.

Infrastructures (p. 180) On social developments in the period see Tonia Kiousopoulou, Emperor or Manager: Power and Political Ideology in Byzantium before 1453 (Geneva: La Pomme d’or, 2011).

(p. 181) ¶ On the economy the best overviews are again Matchke’s chapters in the Economic History of Byzantium (as in Chapter 7) and Elizabeth Zachariadou, Trade and Crusade: Venetian Crete and the Emirates of Menteshe and Aydin (1300–1415) (Venice: Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine studies, 1983). More specifically on Constantinople see Nevra Necipoğlu, Byzantium between the Ottomans and the Latins: politics and society in the late empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2009).

The most thorough examination of late Byzantine social history is by Klaus-Peter Matschke and Franz Tinnefeld, Die Gesellschaft im späten Byzanz: Gruppen, Strukturen und Lebensformen (Cologne, Weimar and Vienna: Böhlau, 2001). Apart from Matscke’s publications on the leading aristocratic entrepreneurs Notaras and Goudelis (whose conclusions are included in his study with Tinnefeld), the most important scholarship on the topic is by Thierry Ganchou: see his ‘Le rachat des Notaras après la chute de Constantinople, ou les relations “étrangères” de l’élite byzantine au XVe siècle’, in Migrations et Diasporas Méditerranéennes (Xe – XVIe siècles), edited by M. Balard and A. Ducellier (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2002) 215-335; ‘Autonomie locale et relations avec les Latins à Byzance au XIVe siècle: Iôannès Limpidarios / Libadarios, Ainos et les Draperio de Péra’, in Chemins d’outre-mer. Études d’histoire sur la Méditerranée médiévale offertes à Michel Balard (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2004) 353-74 and ‘L’ultime testament de Géôrgios Goudélès, homme d’affaires, mésazôn de Jean V et ktètôr (Constantinople, 4 mars 1421)’, in Mélanges Cécile Morrisson = Travaux et Mémoires 16 (2010) 277-359. See also Jonathan Harris, ‘Constantinople as City-State, c. 1360-1453,’ in Byzantines, Latins, and Turks in the Eastern Mediterranean World after 1150, edited by J. Harris, et al. (Oxford: OUP, 2012) 119-40. On the coronation of Kantakouzenos see the poem by C. P. Cavafy ‘Of Colored Glass’

(p. 182) ¶ On late Byzantine demography see Dionysios Stathakopoulos, ‘Gesellschaft und Demographie im spätbyzantinischen Griechenland (1261-1453),’ in Hinter den Mauern und auf dem offenen Land: Neue Forschungen zum Leben im Byzantinischen Reich (Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Tagungen, forthcoming)

(p. 183) On the importance of Athos see Mount Athos and Byzantine Monasticism, edited by A. M. Bryer and M. Cunningham, (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1996). ¶  Kostis Smyrlis, ‘Mount Athos in the Fifteenth Century: Crisis and the Beginning of Recovery’, in Tο Άγιον Όρος στον 15οκαι 16ο αιώνα  (Thessalonica: Aristoteleio Panepistemio Thessalonikes, 2012), 33-55. The notion of an imagined community linking Byzantium and its orthodox neighbours was first put forward by Dimitri Obolensky in The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe 500–1453 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971). ¶ On the tensions between rich and poor see  Alexios Makrembolites, Dialogue between the Rich and the Poor, translated by I. Ševčenko, Zbornik Radova Vizantoloskog Instituta 6 (1960) 187−228.

Environment (p. 184) On Hesychasm see the overview by Krausmüller, ‘The rise of hesychasm’ (as in Chapter 7). ¶ On Palaiologan scholars and intellectuals see the studies by N. Wilson and E. Fryde (as in Chapter 7) and also Matschke and Tinnefeld, Die Gesellschaft im späten Byzanz (as in Chapter 7) 221-385, which includes a detailed list of 174 such indivuals.

(p. 185) ¶ The case of conversion to the Roman creed is discussed in Claudine Delacroix-Besnier, ‘Conversions constantinopolitaines au XIVe siècle,’ Mélanges de l’Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes  105 (1993) 715-61 and Judith R. Ryder, ‘”Catholics” in the Byzantine Political Elite: the Case of Demetrius Kydones,’ in Languages of Love and Hate: Conflict, Communication, and Identity in the Medieval Mediterranean, edited by S. Lambert and H. Nicholson (Turnhout: Brepols, 2012), 159-74. On the practice of magic in the period see Richard Greenfield, ‘A Contribution to the Study of Palaeologan Magic,’ in Byzantine Magic, edited by H. Maguire (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1995) 117-53. On the general question of Greek Studies in Italy see Nigel G. Wilson, From Byzantium to Italy. Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance (London: Duckworth, 1992); On Manuel Chrysoloras see Ian Thompson, ‘Manuel Chrysoloras and Early Italian Renaissance,’ Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 7 (1966), 63-82; on Demerios Kydones, see Judith R. Ryder, The Career and Writings of Demetrius Kydones. A Study of Fourteenth-Century Byzantine Politics, Religion and Society (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010).

(p. 186) ¶ On Francesco Filelfo see Cent-dix lettres grecques de François Filelfe, edited by E. Legrand (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1892); Diana Robin, ‘Unknown Greek Poems of Francesco Filelfo,’ Renaissance Quarterly 37 (1984) 173-206 (his poem to Mehmed II is discussed on p. 196) as well as her edition and translation of his Odes (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 2009), (with numerous poems inciting a Crusade against the Turks); see also the chapter in Wilson From Byzantium to Italy (as above) and Thierry Ganchou, ‘Les ultimae voluntates de Manuel et Iôannès Chrysolôras et le séjour de Francesco Filelfo à Constantinople,’ Byzantinistica 7 (2005) 195-285. On Cyriac of Ancona see Cyriacus of Ancona’s Journeys into the Propontis and the Northern Aegean 1444-1445, edited by E. W. Bodnar and C. Mitchell, in Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society 112 (Philadelphia, 1976); Cyriac of Ancona, Later Travels, edited and translated by E. W. Bodnar with C. Foss (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 2003) and Marina Belozerskaya,  To wake the dead: a Renaissance merchant and the birth of archaeology (New York: W.W. Norton, 2009) which offers a useful overview written for a general audience.

(pp. 186-187) ¶ On Manuel II’s Dialogue with a Persian see the critical edition with a German translation edited by Karl Förstel in 3 vols (Würzburg: Echter Verlag, 1995) and also Stephen W. Reinert, ‘Manuel II Palaeologos and His Müderris,’ in The Twilight of Byzantium, edited by S. Ćurčić and D. Mouriki (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991) 39-51; the controversial lecture by pope Benedict XVI is found here and the open letter by Muslim authorities in response to his speech here

(p. 187) On late Byzantine art see Byzantium: Faith and Power (in chapter 7).

(p. 188) ¶ On the material culture of Athos see the catalogues of two exhibitions devoted to it: Θησαυροί του Αγίου Όρους, edited by A. A. Karakatsanes (Thessalonica, 1997) and Le Mont Athos et l’Empire byzantin: Trésors de la Sainte Montagne, edited by H. Studievic (Paris: Les Éditions Paris Musée, 2009).

(p. 189) On Mystras see Steven Runciman, Byzantine capital of the Peloponnese (London: Thames and Hudson, 1980) and Manolis Chatzidakis, Mystras: the Medieval City and the Castle (Athens: Ekdotike Athenon, 1981).

(pp. 189-190) On Plethon, the late, radical thinker see now Niketas Siniossoglou, Radical Platonism in Byzantium: illumination and utopia in Gemistos Plethon (Cambridge: CUP, 2011) as well as ¶ C. M. Woodhouse, Gemistos Plethon: the last of the Hellenes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986); See also Plethon’s tomb in Rimini